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Sign of the Day - AUNT AND UNCLE

Interpreter Q & A: Asking Questions vs. Being Nosey

Interpreter Q & A: Asking Questions vs. Being Nosey

Interpreter Tips   |  Thursday, July 21, 2016

By Brenda Cartwright

This article is by Brenda Cartwright. Brenda is a seasoned interpreter, a master teacher, and well known presenter. Brenda is the "Dear Abby" for the interpreting world - author of the Dear Reality column in the VIEWS publication from Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID) and the book Encounters With Reality: 1001 Interpreter Scenarios. She will be contributing blog articles for Signing Savvy on interpreting, Deaf culture, and answering a series of "Dear BC" interpreter questions.

Dear BC,

In an educational setting, a student asked me to accompany her to interpret a conversation with one of her teachers. On the way to the teacher’s classroom, I asked “What did you need to see the teacher for?” The deaf student responded, “It’s none of your business, you are the interpreter and you will do what I tell you to do!” Needless to say, I was shocked at this answer.

I always try to prepare myself and avoid misunderstandings. For example, before going into a doctor’s office, I ask the client why they’re there, to prepare myself as well as to get a feel for the client’s signing style, etc. I’m not being nosey and I feel this response was very curt and rude. Is this how we are viewed?

Not trying to be nosey

An Experienced Interpreter's Perspective:

I think there are a number of issues at play. First, there is your question and reasoning behind it. I applaud your rationale. You were trying to be prepared for the event and to try and gauge the Deaf person’s sign style/preference. That’s great! However, I wouldn’t have asked why the student wanted to see the teacher. It may be misconstrued as fishing for information.

If this was a first-time assignment, I think the most I might ask would be, “What does the teacher teach?” That way, the subject being taught would prime my brain for certain terms and/or grammatical aspects of ASL/English.

If you’re trying to measure a young student’s signing preference, you could ask about another less threatening topic. One question I use is “What is your favorite game?” Lots of times, young kids will answer by talking about their favorite video game. They’re more relaxed and it helps me find a good starting point for matching their preferences.

The second issue is the Deaf student’s response. Remember that she’s young and part of being a student is learning how to be a savvy yet polite consumer. If this educational setting is your full-time position, you should talk with the student as soon as you can after the interpreting event. Be honest but not authoritative. Remember, diplomacy can be your best friend. You might want to tell her that it always helps the interpreter to have something to start with, both content and communication preferences, so that you can be ready to interpret. This way the student might volunteer necessary information next time without an interpreter having to ask.

Experienced Deaf Consumer's Perspective:

That sounds familiar to me. I have seen and heard this reaction from students. I believe the student is learning how to utilize an interpreter. Some students will use too much power without common sense. Often, deaf students are told that interpreters do not have the right to be nosey about their personal lives, but at the same time they do not understand how the Code of Ethics really works for them. This student probably didn’t even think ahead about the fact that the interpreter is going to find out what the topic will be in a few moments anyway. They just don’t know why you are asking those kinds of questions.

After the initial meeting – not right away, but later on – you should have a nice comfortable talk with the student about why you ask those kinds of questions. Explaining this would be beneficial. Some students need help learning how to utilize interpreters and what to expect later in the deaf community. Eventually, the student can decide whether the interpreter’s questions are appropriate prior to situations. This student is still learning.

What's your perspective? Share your thoughts in the comments below.

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About the Author

Brenda CartwrightBrenda Cartwright is a seasoned interpreter, a master teacher, well known presenter, and author of several best selling sign language and interpreting textbooks from the RID Press. For the last 30 years Brenda has been the Chair of the Sign Language Interpreter Program at Lansing Community College in Lansing, Michigan.

More about Brenda  |  Articles by Brenda

12 Facts You Probably Don’t Know About Helen Keller

Deaf Culture   |  Monday, June 27, 2016

By Jillian Winn

Helen Keller became deaf and blind at 19 months old. She was famous from the age of 8 for her experience of overcoming great obstacles in order to learn to communicate. This early part of her life is the most well-known, but the story doesn’t end there. Helen would go on to become not only well educated, but famous in her own right as an author and activist. She has even been said to be one of the 20th century's leading humanitarians and was named one of the most important people of the 20th century by Life magazine.

Here are 12 facts you probably don’t know about Helen Keller.

#1 Her famous life story was based on the autobiography she wrote.

Helen Keller with Anne SullivanHelen Keller at 8 years old with her teacher Anne Sullivan while on vacation in Brewster, Cape Cod, Massachusetts in July 1888. (Photo Credit: Wikimedia Commons. New England Historic Genealogical Society.)

Helen Keller’s early life was made famous through the well-known story The Miracle Worker, which was made into a Broadway play (1959-1961; 1994; 2010), television drama (1957; 1979; 2000), and film (1962). It was even adapted for Spanish (TVE, 1978) and Italian (RAI, 1968) television.

The Miracle Worker tells the story of Keller’s breakthrough in understanding the connection between words, language, and the world around her. Many people don’t realize The Miracle Worker story is based on Keller’s first book, the autobiography “The Story of My Life,” which was published in 1903 when she was just 24 and went on to become a renowned classic, translated into 50 languages.

#2 She thought of herself as an author first.

Although she accomplished many things, Keller saw herself as a writer first – her passport listed her profession as "author."

She used both a braille and regular typewriter - she used a braille typewriter to prepare her manuscripts and then copied them on a regular typewriter.

She published fourteen books, many articles and essays, and was a frequent contributor to magazines and newspapers. The Helen Keller Archives contain over 475 speeches and essays that she wrote on topics such as faith, blindness prevention, birth control, the rise of fascism in Europe, and atomic energy.

#3 She was an Oscar winner and her life inspired two Oscar-winning movies.

Helen Keller with her Academy AwardHelen Keller holding her Academy Award for "Helen Keller in Her Story," awarded for Best Documentary Feature in 1956. (Photo Credit: Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences)

Helen Keller won an Oscar for Best Documentary in 1956 for the story of her life Helen Keller in Her Story (also known as The Unconquered). She accepted the Academy Award at the age of 75. Keller is the only person to win an Academy Award for appearing in a documentary about her life and also have someone else win an Oscar for portraying her in another movie about her life.

The Miracle Worker story won many awards. The 1962 film won Academy Awards for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress. Patty Duke, who won the Oscar for Best Supporting Actress, is the only actress to win an Oscar for a role in which only one word is said (she says, “Water!” in the famous scene in the movie when Keller understands that what she is touching at the pump is called water). The original 1959 The Miracle Worker play ran for 719 performances and won the 1960 Tony Award for Best Play, in addition to Best Direction, Best Stage Technician, and Best Actress.

#4 She was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest honor that an American civilian can receive.

In addition to Oscars and Tonys being awarded for adaptations to her life story The Miracle Worker, Helen Keller received many awards during her lifetime. She received the Theodore Roosevelt Distinguished Service Medal in 1936 and in 1964 was awarded the highest honor that an American civilian can receive, the Presidential Medal of Freedom. She later received Brazilian Order of the Southern Cross (1952), the Philippines' Golden Heart, the French Legion of Honor (1952) and Japan's Sacred Treasure. She was elected to the Women's Hall of Fame at the New York World’s Fair in 1965, the Alabama Women’s Hall of Fame in 1971, and the National Women’s Hall of Fame in 1973. A U.S. Stamp with a picture of Keller and Sullivan was issued in 1980. Other countries have issued stamps with her image as well, including Spain, India, Liberia, Nicaragua, Republic of Maldives, Mauritius, Brazil, and Japan.

#5 She was well-educated and the first deaf-blind person to earn a Bachelor of Arts degree.

Helen Keller's graduation from Radcliffe College.Helen Keller's graduation from Radcliffe College in 1904. (Photo Credit: Wikimedia Commons.)

Helen Keller graduated cum laude from Radcliffe College (Harvard’s Women’s College) in 1904 at the age of 24. She was the first deaf-blind person to earn a Bachelor of Arts degree. She also learned to read French, German, Greek, and Latin in braille!

In June 1955, Helen was the first woman to be awarded an honorary degree from Harvard University. She also received honorary degrees from Temple University in Pennsylvania, Glasgow University in Scotland; Delhi University in India; Berlin University in Germany; and Witwatersrand University in Johannesburg, South Africa.

#6 She performed on the Vaudeville circuit as a speaker.

Helen Keller and Anne Sullivan in Vaudeville costumes.Helen Keller and Anne Sullivan in sequined vaudeville costumes around 1920. (Photo Credit: American Foundation for the Blind)

Keller was offered a chance to join Vaudeville as a teenager (Vaudeville is a genre of entertainment featuring specialty acts and the Vaudeville circuit included many venues across the U.S.), but turned down the opportunity because her family and her teacher Anne Sullivan didn’t think it was a good idea. Keller eventually convinced Sullivan. Keller performed on the Vaudeville circuit from 1920 to 1924 as a lecturer with Anne Sullivan.

The public was intrigued by Keller and wanted to see for themselves if she could do all of the things she was credited for – most deaf-blind people during this time were institutionalized and assumed to be “retarded,” rumors also circulated that Keller plagiarized, that her books were written by ghost authors, and that her teacher Anne Sullivan and her husband used Keller to spread their own views. Keller wanted the opportunity to re-tell her story the way she wanted it told, to be an advocate, and to educate others on the struggles of the deaf-blind.

Keller was billed as “The Star of Happiness” and her show was a success. The audience was surprised to hear her speak and the most popular part of the show was the Q & A at the end, where Keller got to showcase her quick wit and push her political views. When asked if talking tires her, Keller responded, “Did you ever hear a woman who tired of talking?”

#7 She was a world traveler and visited a total of 39 countries across 5 continents.

Helen Keller in JapanHelen Keller greeting crowds excited to see her in Japan. (Photo Credit: Encyclopedia of Alabama)

Helen was a world traveler and visited a total of 39 countries across 5 continents. She was an activist for both the American Federation for the Blind and Helen Keller International (which she helped to found), and spent much of her later years traveling around the world, raising money and awareness for the blind and other social issues.

She didn’t slow down. In 1955, when she was 75 years old, she embarked on one of her longest and most grueling journeys - a 40,000-mile, five-month-long tour through Asia.

#8 She was a dog lover and was the first to bring the Japanese Akita dog breed to America.

She loved dogs and had dogs throughout her life.

She introduced the Japanese Akita breed to America after receiving her first Akita dog, which was a gift from police officer Ichiro Ogasawara during one of her trips to Japan.

#9 She has a love affair with one of her assistants.

An interesting story that is not included in many biographies about Helen Keller is she had a love affair in 1916 at the age of 36. Anne Sullivan and Keller worked closely together and lived together, however, Sullivan was away seeking treatment and recuperating from tuberculosis. Peter Fagan, a 29-year-old Boston Herald reporter, became Keller’s secretary during this time and they fell in love. However, 1916 society, including Keller’s family and Sullivan, didn’t think women with disabilities should get married or have normal romantic desires. Fagan and Keller had taken out a marriage license and had planned to elope. They tried twice to run off together, but were stopped by Keller’s family and teachers. The third time, Keller waited on the dark porch with her packed bag, but Fagan never showed up. Some of Fagan’s family say the family legend is that Fagan was threatened by the Keller family and he retreated because he feared for his life. They also say Keller’s teacher Anne Sullivan was jealous of anyone else getting close to Keller and insisted the relationship end.

#10 She was a dignitary with many famous friends.

Helen became a celebrity among celebrities and she met a number of influential and famous people.

Among her friends were author Mark Twain and inventor Alexander Graham Bell. She made quite an impact on Mark Twain. They met at a lunch held for her in New York in 1895. He was so impressed with her that he encouraged his benefactor to fund her education, which he did. The financial support allowed her to pursue a college education, becoming the first deaf-blind person to earn a Bachelor of Arts degree.

Twain once said, "The two greatest characters in the 19th century are Napoleon and Helen Keller. Napoleon tried to conquer the world by physical force and failed. Helen tried to conquer the world by power of mind — and succeeded!” Perhaps inspired by Keller, one of Twain’s famous quotes is, “Kindness is a language which the deaf can hear, and the blind can see.”

Alexander Graham Bell, inventor of the light bulb, helped connect her family to the Perkins Institute for the Blind, where they found Anne Sullivan and where Helen later attend school for a few years. She dedicated her first book, The Story of My Life to him, “To ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL who has taught the deaf to speak and enabled the listening ear to hear speech from the Atlantic to the Rockies, I dedicate this Story of My Life."

She met 12 U.S. presidents - every U.S president from Grover Cleveland to John F. Kennedy. She also met leaders of other countries, including the Queen of England, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, Prime Minister of Israel Golda Meir, and Japanese Emperor Hirohito.

Additionally she met many famous people, including Albert Einstein, Henry Ford, Andrew Carnegie, Eleanor Roosevelt, Will Rogers, Emma Goldman, Eugene Debs, Charlie Chaplin, Katharine Cornell, Jo Davidson, Martha Graham, Enrico Caruso, and Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes.

#11 She was a political activist with strong political views, which were considered radical.

Keller said, “So long as you can sweeten another’s pain, life is not in vain.” She lived by that mantra and is remembered as a social activist who fought for the rights of others. What many don’t know is that she had strong political views, which were considered radical for the time.

She wrote socialist pieces and was such a controversial author that the FBI did surveillance on her, and the Nazis burned a collection of her political essays in 1933. Media that once supported Keller lashed out at her for her socialist beliefs. She remarked on the change of attitude from one editor, “At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error.”

Causes she advocated for included:

  • She was a suffragette who advocated for women’s right to vote and access to birth control.
  • She was a pacifist and protested the U.S. involvement in World War I.
  • She was an early supporter and donor of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), fighting particularly for the rights of blind African Americans.
  • She joined the Socialist Party and fought for workers' rights.
  • She co-founded the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) in 1920.
  • She helped to found Helen Keller International in 1915.
  • In 1921, Helen joined the American Foundation for the Blind (AFB) and worked for the organization for over 40 years.
  • She testified before Congress, strongly advocating to improve the welfare of blind people.
  • In 1925, Keller addressed the Lions Club at their International Convention in Cedar Point, Ohio. She challenged Lions to become “knights of the blind in the crusade against darkness.” Since then, the Lions have worked to aid the blind and visually impaired. They have helped millions of people worldwide and continue to have sight programs designed to prevent blindness, restore eyesight and improve eye health and eye care.

#12 Helen Keller Day is celebrated on her birthday – June 27th.

Helen Keller with cake.Helen Keller being presented with her birthday cake in 1955. Polly Thomson is on her left and guiding her hand. (Photo Credit: American Foundation for the Blind)

Helen Keller’s June 27th birthday is commemorated as Helen Keller Day.

Helen Keller Days have been proclaimed by the mayors of Newark, New Jersey, Annapolis, Maryland, and is recognized annually in the state of Pennsylvania and Alabama. Helen Keller Day was authorized at the federal level by presidential proclamation by President Jimmy Carter in 1980, for the 100th anniversary of her birth.

Her birthplace, a plantation called Ivy Green in Tuscumbia, Alabama, is now a museum and the City of Tuscumbia hosts an annual Helen Keller Festival the last week of June.


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