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Blog Articles in Category: Deaf Culture

Living Loud: Robert Panara – Pioneer of Deaf Studies, Author, Historian, Poet, and Teacher

Deaf Culture   |  Monday, July 15, 2019

By Marta Belsky

This article is by Marta Belsky. Marta is a third generation ASL user. She has been teaching ASL for 30 years and enjoys sharing her native language with new users.

This article is part of our "Living Loud" series, which highlights famous people who are deaf or hard of hearing and their impact in the world.

Dr. Robert F. Panara was much more than just a member of the Deaf community, he was an author, historian, poet, and a worldwide authority on deaf figures in literature. While these are all notable achievements, his biggest achievement was being a pioneer of Deaf Studies - the first deaf professor at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID) and founder of both the NTID Department of English and NTID’s Experimental Education Theatre program.1, 3

Robert Panara Quote
Robert Panara’s poem, “On His Deafness,” won first prize in the World Poetry Contest in 1988.
(Photo Credit: NTID Performing Arts.)

Early Life

Robert Panara, who went by the name Bob, was born on July 8th, 1920 in The Bronx of New York City, but according to an article in The Economist his life did not start until January 19th, 1931 when, at the age of 10, he became deaf after contracting spinal meningitis on his mother’s birthday. The meningitis caused blurred vision, temporary loss of feeling in his arm, and damage to his auditory nerves. It was not until a nurse had attempted to speak with Panara that they realized the illness had caused deafness.2

Finding a Passion for Deaf Studies

“ What the world needs today is more teaching that comes from the heart and soul and not of the coldly conservative and somewhat reticent mind.
     -
Robert Panara

Growing up Panara attended a mainstream school and would rely on fellow students to help him with taking notes. After graduating from DeWitt Clinton High School, he learned American Sign Language in Hartford, Connecticut at the American School for the Deaf. In 1940 Panara started working on his bachelor’s degree at Gallaudet University. During his time at Gallaudet, Panara published several papers that helped establish him as one of the pioneers in the deaf education field.1 One paper specifically, “The Significance of the Reading Problem,” articulated his views on teaching methods. Panara believed that “what the world needs today is more teaching that comes from the heart and soul and not of the coldly conservative and somewhat reticent mind.” This would set the tone of his teaching style in the future.1

Panara graduated from Gallaudet in 1945 and went on to earn a master’s degree in English from New York University (NYU). He was the first deaf person to earn a master’s degree from NYU.1 He would later have many more achievements just like this one.

Robert and Shirley Panara
Shirley and Robert Panara. (Photo Credit: NTID Performing Arts.)

Panara met his wife Shirley at a wedding and they got married in 1947. She was a deaf librarian, teacher, coach, sports enthusiast, and even played the drums on occasion. She was the first deaf librarian at the Library of Congress. They had a son, John, and two grandchildren.3

Panera taught at the New York School for the Deaf and then was hired to teach at Gallaudet University in 1948, where he taught for nearly 20 years. Then he joined the newly formed National Technical Institute for the Deaf (part of the Rochester Institute of Technology) and taught and was an administrator there for another 20 years.7

Robert Panara and the National Technical Institute for the Deaf

Robert Panara
Robert Panara (Photo Credit: RIT/NTID via Washington Post)

As a pioneer of deaf studies, Robert Panara helped change the life of many people in the deaf community. An article in the American Annals of the Deaf stated, “In 1965, he was invited by the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, John W. Gardner to serve on a national advisory board for the establishment of the National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID).” That experience would later lead to him being hired as the first deaf faculty member at NTID in 1967.1 He also was the founder and first chairman of NTID’s Department of English.3 During his time at NTID he would receive multiple awards and honors, but one of his most notable would be founding the NTID Experimental Education Theatre program as well as being one of the founding members of the National Theatre of the Deaf.1

Robert and Shirley Panara receiving award
Robert Panara receiving an award in 1988 at NTID with his wife Shirley. (Photo Credit: NTID.)

Panara created a form of production that could be accessible equally for both Deaf and hearing audience members. This would be not only for the audience, but also backstage and on-stage. Alongside the NTID drama club members, he was able to use “experimentation and imagination” as one of the foundations of the productions. They created bodies of art that enriched lives of the thousands of attendees. A 500-seat auditorium was built in his honor in the early 1970’s and would open as The Robert F. Panara Theatre on October 3rd, 1974 with the first production taking place in the space being Shakespeare’s play Taming of the Shrew. The theatre has hosted famous guests such as Phyllis Frelich, Marlee Matlin, Bernard Bragg, American Deaf Dance Company, Jane Fonda, and many other notable entertainers.6 This was a huge honor for Panara that brought awareness and artistic growth to the Deaf Community.

The Robert F. Panara Theatre was not the only honor Panara was given during his time at NTID. Other awards include: RIT Founders Award, the RIT Eisenhart Award for Outstanding Teaching, and the NTID Student Association Outstanding Staff Award (McGrain, 2014).

Robert Panara US Stamp
A U.S. stamp was issued in honor of Robert Panara on April 11, 2017 as part of the Distinguished Americans series.  (Photo Credit: USPS)

He was even honored with being the subject of a United States Postal Service stamp. The stamp is the 16th in the Distinguished American’s series. Robert’s son John stated, “I’m very proud to see my dad honored and Deaf culture recognized in this way, and I want to thank the personnel at the USPS Stamp Development Office for all their work in the design process.”5 This was a great honor not only for Robert, but also for NTID and the Deaf community.

Leaving a Legacy

Panara died on July 20th, 2014 at the age of 94.2 Friends and colleagues described his positive perspective on life as well as the way he engaged with his students as admirable. In an interview with Harry Lang, NTID professor emeritus, Lang states that “his work [with the NTID drama club] helped the actors show the beauty of American Sign Language and opened minds and doors in so many ways. He had a true talent for translating the most complex of subjects, like Shakespeare, into ASL.”1 Lang was not only one of Panara’s colleagues, but also a close friend. It is clear that his impact on the Deaf community was influential.

Thanks to his many contributions to NTID and his many publications during his time at Gallaudet which demonstrated his focused teaching methods, Robert was named a pioneer of deaf studies.1 His legacy will live on and his place in the Deaf community will be forever remembered.

Biography About Robert Panara

Books by Robert Panara

  

Robert Panara Stamps

Resources

  1. McGrain, V. (2014). In Memoriam: Robert F. Panara. American Annals of the Deaf 159(4), 313-314. Gallaudet University Press. Retrieved from Project MUSE database https://muse.jhu.edu/article/561759

  2. Obituary: Robert Panara. (2014, August 1). The Economist. Retrieved from https://www.economist.com/obituary/2014/08/01/robert-panara

  3. Our History. (n.d.). NTID Performing Arts. Retrieved from https://www.ntid.rit.edu/theatre/our-history

  4. Gallaudet Museum (2016, May 4). Unveiling of Panera Exhibit [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.gallaudet.edu/museum/exhibits/the-life-of-robert-panara/panara-exhibit-unveiling

  5. RIT/NTID founding faculty member Robert Panara to be immortalized on postage stamp. (2016, November 23). National Technical Institute for the Deaf. Retrieved from https://www.rit.edu/ntid/parentnews/2016/11/23/ritntid-founding-faculty-member-robert-panara-to-be-immortalized-on-postage-stamp/

  6. Robert F. Panara Theatre (n.d.). NTID Performing Arts. Retrieved from https://www.ntid.rit.edu/theatre/facilities/panara-theatre

  7. Stamp: Robert Panara (2017, April 11). USPS. Retrieved from https://store.usps.com/store/product/buy-stamps/robert-panara-S_114004

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About the Author

Marta Belsky Marta Belsky is a third generation ASL user. She has been teaching ASL for 30 years and enjoys sharing her native language with new users. Marta is on the Lansing Community College Interpreter Training Program Advisory Board and has also been a board member for the Michigan Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf and the Michigan Chapter of American Sign Language Teachers Association.

More about Marta  |  Articles by Marta

Living Loud: Clayton Valli – ASL Linguist, Poet, Scholar, Teacher, and Author

Deaf Culture   |  Sunday, May 5, 2019

By Marta Belsky

This article is by Marta Belsky. Marta is a third generation ASL user. She has been teaching ASL for 30 years and enjoys sharing her native language with new users.

This article is part of our "Living Loud" series, which highlights famous people who are deaf or hard of hearing and their impact in the world.

Clayton Valli
Clayton Valli (Photo Credit: Clayton Valli “Nurturing ASL Literature”)

American Sign Language (ASL) is its own beautiful and rich language that has its own unique grammar and syntax. This was proven by linguists at Gallaudet University in the mid-twentieth century. Since then, more aspects of ASL have been defined, including ASL literature. ASL Literature is defined as creative works that have stood the test of time and reflect the deaf experience. These can be visual works, folk lore, plays, legends, or even personal experiences. One significant genre is poetry. These signed works tell stories in visual ways and also have elements of poetry, just like written poetry.

Clayton Valli was a notable ASL poet and linguist who identified aspects of ASL poetry and was a significant community member who contributed to the growing legitimacy of ASL. On May 25, 1951 Clayton L Valli was born deaf in Newburyport, Massachusetts. He was named after his father and had two brothers and two sisters.

Education: First PhD in ASL Poetry

Valli earned his high school diploma from the Austine School for the Deaf in 1971, at the age of 20. The school was located in Brattleboro, Vermont. The first of many degrees that Valli earned during his lifetime was an Associate of Applied Science (A.A.S.) degree in Photography from the National Technical Institute for the Deaf. Next, he finished a B.A. in Social Psychology from the University of Nevada, Reno. His further endeavors led him to Gallaudet University, the only Liberal Arts College for the Deaf in the world. He earned his master’s degree in Linguistics from Gallaudet in 1985. He also later worked at the school as a professor of linguistics and interpreting. After his master's degree, Valli went on to earn a doctorate degree from the Union Institute in Cincinnati, Ohio. He was the first person to receive a Ph.D. in Linguistics and ASL Poetics.

“ ASL poetry has two hands you can use to express yourself and they can both be doing separate things, which can add a depth to the message that spoken poetry can’t do when you only have one tongue to use.
     - Clayton Valli

He gave a lecture on his dissertation at the second National American Sign Language Literature Conference in Rochester, New York. The conference took place March 28-31, 1996. During this presentation Valli expounds on his findings on ASL rhyme and meter in poetry. Valli compared rhyme in a written/spoken language poetry piece to repetition of signs or hand shapes in a visual language. Meter, or stressed and unstressed syllables within words being manipulated, was compared to the innate holds and moves of signs with ASL. He also talked about the richness of ASL poetry in contrast to written poetry. “ASL poetry has two hands you can use to express yourself and they can both be doing separate things, which can add a depth to the message that spoken poetry can’t do when you only have one tongue to use.”2 Valli told the audience about how ASL in its very nature, being a visual language, has more parts that make it a vibrant form of communication.

Scholar of ASL Linguistics

In addition to poetry, his career focused on Sociolinguistics, or the study of how language, such as structure and word choice is impacted by a person’s background, like race, gender, or geographic location. He did presentations and workshop around the US and Canada, teaching people about his findings.

Through his work on ASL linguistics, he authored several books and numerous articles. He co-authored a linguistics textbook specific to ASL titled, Linguistics of American Sign Language, which has been edited and revised many times. Valli also co-wrote three other large works: What’s Your Sign For Pizza?, Language Contact in the American Deaf Community, and Sociolinguistic Variation in American Sign Language. In addition to these, he also worked as an editor for the Gallaudet University Press, including serving as the editor of the textbook The Gallaudet Dictionary of American Sign Language.

Renowned Poet

Valli was a proponent of showing the legitimacy of ASL as a language and ASL poetry as a valid part of ASL Literature, even though there is not necessarily a written form. Additionally, Valli was an ASL poet himself. He wrote and performed many poems including Dandelions, I’m Sorry, My Favorite Old Summer House, Mushroom, and Snowflake, as well as many others.

Watch Valli's Dandelions Poem:

Since the first recording of sign language in 1913 by Veditz, the use of film and video has been an important way to capture and preserve sign language. Valli is no exception to this, as his collection of poetry titled, ASL Poetry: Selected Work of Clayton Valli is not printed in a book but is only available in DVD format, so it can be viewed in its origin language.

Continued Legacy

Though Valli died from complications related to AIDS in 2003, his work and influence is still significant in the Deaf community even today. His written and signed works continue to be a source of education and entertainment. His textbooks are still used in classrooms and universities today. His poems are studied, analyzed and recreated by students every year. Valli work also inspired other Deaf artists including Bernard Bragg and Nancy Rourke, the notable deaf painter.

Clayton Valli
The artwork above was created by Deaf painter Nancy Rourke in 2011. The painting on the left was inspired by Valli’s poem Dandelions. The image in the middle shows how his hand movement from the ASL poem inspired the artwork. The painting on the right is of Valli himself. (Photo Credit: Nancy Rourke, 2001. Deaf Art:Valli's Dandelions and Clayton Valli.

Additionally, there are two memorial scholarships in his name at his alma mater and former workplace, Gallaudet University, for students perusing their education. He is greatly missed by the deaf community but his impact as a linguist, poet, scholar, teacher, and author still continues.

DVDs:

Books:

  

 

Resources

  1. Sign Language Studies (2003). In memoriam: Clayton L. Valli. Sign Language Studies, 3(4), 504-505.

  2. [ASLit 4ever]. (2018, April 11). Clayton Valli “Nurturing ASL Literature” [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VIr8gYX1fsE

  3. Lapiak, J. (n.d.). Clayton Valli. HandSpeak. Retrieved from 
    https://www.handspeak.com/study/index.php?id=95

  4. MSM Productions, Ltd. (n.d.). Clayton L. Valli. Deaf People. Retrieved from https://www.deafpeople.com/history/history_info/valli.html 

  5. The Washington Post. (2003, March 11). Dr. Clayton L. Valli Obituary. Retrieved from: https://www.legacy.com/obituaries/washingtonpost/obituary.aspx?fhid=4699&n=clayton-l-valli&pid=852032

  6. Rourke, N. (n.d.). Deaf Art: Valli’s Dandelions. Retrieved from https://www.nancyrourke.com/vallisdandelions.htm

Signing Savvy is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking signingsavvy.com to Amazon properties. That means Signing Savvy may contain affiliate links. If you make a purchase after clicking on an affiliate link, your cost will be exactly the same regardless, but Signing Savvy will automatically receive a small commission. Your support is greatly appreciated and helps us continue to improve Signing Savvy!

 

View/Add Comments (0 comments)

About the Author

Marta Belsky Marta Belsky is a third generation ASL user. She has been teaching ASL for 30 years and enjoys sharing her native language with new users. Marta is on the Lansing Community College Interpreter Training Program Advisory Board and has also been a board member for the Michigan Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf and the Michigan Chapter of American Sign Language Teachers Association.

More about Marta  |  Articles by Marta

Living Loud: Allen Snare – Deaf Pastor, Evangelist, and Missionary

Deaf Culture   |  Sunday, April 14, 2019

By Brenda Cartwright

This article is by Brenda Cartwright. Brenda is a seasoned interpreter, a master teacher, and well known presenter. Brenda is the author of the Dear Reality column in the VIEWS publication from Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID) and the book Encounters With Reality: 1001 Interpreter Scenarios. She will be contributing blog articles for Signing Savvy on interpreting, Deaf culture, and answering a series of "Dear BC" interpreter questions.

This article is part of our "Living Loud" series, which highlights famous people who are deaf or hard of hearing and their impact in the world.

Allen Snare was born Deaf with his hearing twin sister Faye on April 14, 1947. Allen grew up in Huntingdon, Pennsylvania, with his three brothers and three sisters who were all hearing. He attended the Pennsylvania School for the Deaf in Philadelphia and he loved it! He had full access to communication at school. However, access at church was a different story.

Allen Snare
Allen Snare during an interview. (Photo Credit: Jim Bracelin. Testimony of a Deaf Man.)

Allen grew up attending church with no interpreter. He was clueless of what was being said, until one day, in 1968, when he was invited to a church hosting a week-long revival conference. It just so happened they had an interpreter. That was the first time Allen was exposed to an interpreter. Bill Rice III was a visiting Pastor from the Bill Rice Ranch, a ministry with a goal of reaching the deaf through local revival meetings, regional events, and camps. Bill’s wife Mary interpreted while Bill preached that day. "When Bill Rice asked me if I was saved I told him 'I never heard of that before'; even though I grew up in church my whole life. Once Bill Rice explained who Jesus was and how he died on the cross to save us from our sins, so that we can go to heaven and not hell, I got saved..."3 Allen finally understood what being saved meant.

Allen was convinced to go to Bible college when he saw an ad for it in the Branding Iron, a newspaper for the deaf from the Bill Rice Ranch. Allen went in 1971, but he felt out of place with only eight other deaf people. In 1975, Allen graduated from Tennessee Temple in Chattanooga. Allen was debating between preaching and becoming a missionary; he felt God called him to be a preacher.

Allen pastored in many deaf churches in Texas, Colorado, Alabama, and Ohio. When Allen was living in Texas, he went to Colorado to host a camp revival for a week. While Allen was there, the interpreter introduced him to a nice deaf woman named Debbie. When Allen returned the following Fall, he asked the congregation after he finished preaching who would like to be saved and Debbie came forward. When Debbie got saved, Allen knew she was the one. He and Debbie started dating and they got married on July 22, 1978.

Allen teamed up with Bill Rice III again, the man who first introduced him to an interpreter and helped him to understand the meaning of being saved, when he played the lead role in the movie When Silence Speaks. The movie was produced by Bill Rice III and released by Bill Rice Films Production in 1994. It was a fictional Christian movie about a deaf man, Gordy, played by Allen, searching to understand the meaning of the cross. Allen’s son, John, also was in the movie in the role of a young Gordy.

“ My Heart’s Desire Is To See More Deaf People Saved.
     - Allen Snare

Allen pastored in Pennsylvania for 12 years at Faith Baptist Church in Fairless Hills; he thought he would preach there until he died. However, God had other plans; he was let go from that position.

Allen reached out to Ted Camp, the founder of Silent Word Ministries and told him he was called to serve with him at Silent Word Ministries. At first Ted was hesitant, so they both prayed about it for a week. Allen contacted him a week later stating "God still wants me to join your ministry."3 Ted agreed and Allen and his wife moved to Georgia to start serving for Silent Word Ministries in 2000. Allen is still a full-time missionary with Silent Word Ministries. He travels wherever he is called. He’s been to ten different countries for missionaries and to preach at revival meetings.

Sadly, Debbie was diagnosed with colon cancer the year he started with Silent Deaf Ministries. She fought cancer for five years and in 2006, Debbie passed away. Together they raised a wonderful family. They had three children. Their daughter Joy is hearing, and their two sons, John and Justin, are deaf. Allen is now a grandfather of three. He has one deaf granddaughter and a hearing grandson and granddaughter. They all know sign language.

You can find Allen’s testimony as well as preaching videos on YouTube. He plans to serve the rest of his days as a deaf evangelist to honor his mission statement: "My Heart’s Desire Is To See More Deaf People Saved."

Resources

  1. Barr, Jon. Introducing Allen Snare. Silent Word Ministries, Retrieved from: http://newspaper.silentwordministries.org/article/introducing-allen-snare/

  2. Barr, Jon (2017, September 5,). Monthly Prayer Letters. Silent Word Ministries. Retrieved from: http://silentwordministries.org/2017/09/05/2017-09-sept/

  3. Bracelin, Jim [Jim Bracelin]. (2014, June 5). Testimony of a Deaf Man [Video File.] Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VMwGbDXgRa4

  4. Bracelin, Jim (2018, April 4). Monthly Prayer Letters. Silent Word Ministries. Retrieved from: http://silentwordministries.org/2018/04/06/2018-04-apr/

  5. Silent Word Ministries. Our Mission Team. Silent Word Ministries. Retrieved from: http://silentwordministries.org/missionteam/

  6. When Silence Speaks. IMBd. Retrieved from https://www.imdb.com/title/tt1732762/

 

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About the Author

Brenda CartwrightBrenda Cartwright is a seasoned interpreter, a master teacher, well known presenter, and author of several best selling sign language and interpreting textbooks from the RID Press. For the last 30 years Brenda has been the Chair of the Sign Language Interpreter Program at Lansing Community College in Lansing, Michigan.

More about BC  |  Articles by BC

Living Loud: Kitty O’Neil – The Fastest Woman in the World, Stuntwoman, and Racer

Deaf Culture   |  Sunday, March 24, 2019

By Marta Belsky

This article is by Marta Belsky. Marta is a third generation ASL user. She has been teaching ASL for 30 years and enjoys sharing her native language with new users.

This article is part of our "Living Loud" series, which highlights famous people who are deaf or hard of hearing and their impact in the world.

Kitty O'Neal
Kitty O'Neil in 1976 with the rocket-powered SMI Motivator vehicle she used to set the land-speed record for women - a record she still holds today. (Photo Credit: Ky Michaelson)

Known as "the fastest woman in the world," Kitty O’Neil was born in Corpus Christi, Texas on March 24, 1946. She became deaf at the age of 4 months. She had a variety of illnesses including measles, mumps and the chicken pox - one or all of which led to her becoming profoundly deaf.

Despite her early illnesses, she became a phenomenal athlete. She said, "My mother pushed me to read lips… but she didn’t push me in sports – I did that myself. Because I was deaf, I had a very positive mental attitude. You have to show people you can do anything."

She fell in love with swimming and diving. She finished in twelfth place in the U.S. team trials for the Olympics in Tokyo, where she specialized in diving. Her Olympic dream came to a quick stop in 1964 when she became ill with spinal meningitis. She was told the illness would likely paralyze her. She survived spinal meningitis, only to battle two rounds of cancer by her 28th birthday. However, O’Neil wasn’t one to be defeated. "When I was 18, I was told I couldn’t get a job because I was deaf. But I said someday I’m going to be famous in sports to show them I can do anything." She lived up to her vow.

“ I’m not afraid of anything.
     - Kitty O’Neil

After regaining her health, she turned her attention to racing and performing stunts. She was small, at 5ft 2in tall and just 97 pounds, but she said her size made her light and quick and better to withstand impact. Most importantly, she was fearless. "I’m not afraid of anything," she said.

In 1976, at the age of 30, O’Neil was the first woman to be accepted into Stunts Unlimited, an organization of Hollywood’s top stunt people. She did stunts in TV shows and movies like Quincy, Baretta, The Bionic Woman, Smokey and the Bandit II, The Blues Brothers, and Airport ’77.

Kitty O'Neal
Falling 127 feet as Wonder Woman in 1979, O’Neil set a women’s high-fall record. (Photo Credit: IMBd)

Some considered her to be like a real-world Wonder Woman and in 1979 she performed her most famous Hollywood stunt as a double for Wonder Woman. She plunged headfirst down 127 feet from the 12-story Valley Hilton in Sherman Oaks, California onto an inflatable air bag set up on the hotel's pool deck. "If I hadn't hit the center of the bag, I probably would have been killed," she told The Washington Post. With the fall, she set a women’s high-fall record, however, she would later beat her own record with a 180 foot fall from a helicopter.

Kitty O'Neal
Mattel created a Kitty O’Neil action figure in 1978.

In 1978 Mattel created a Kitty O’Neil action figure and in 1979 a television film was made about her life called Silent Victory: The Kitty O’Neil Story. Stockard Channing stared as O’Neil and, of course, O’Neil did her own stunts. She later commented that about half of the movie was true.

Kitty O'Neal
Kitty O'Neil at the Eureka Pioneer Museum in Eureka, South Dakota. (Photo Credit: IMBd)

From racing boats, cars, dune buggies, motorcycles, a three-wheeled machine, and even holding a record for the fastest speed while waterskiing, she set 22 speed records on land and water during her career.

She died November 2, 2018, at the age of 72 in Eureka, South Dakota. The local Museum in Eureka showcases memorabilia from her career as a stuntwoman and racer. She is still the fastest woman driver ever and continues to hold the land-speed record today.

See It Signed - Example Sentence

See this example sentence about Kitty O'Neil signed:

Kitty O'Neil Example

English Sentence: Did you see the movie about the life of Kitty O’Neil, a deaf stuntwoman and racer?
ASL Gloss: YOU FINISH SEE MOVIE ABOUT DEAF WOMAN HERSELF FAMOUS S-T-U-N-T WOMAN AND CAR RACER. HER NAME K-I-T-T-Y O’-N-E-I-L.
 

Become a Member of Signing Savvy to see more example sentences signed, including example sentences related to Deaf Culture.

Resources

  1. Barnes, Mike (2018, November 5). Kitty O'Neil, Famed Hollywood Stuntwoman and Daredevil, Dies at 72. The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved from https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/kitty-oneil-dead-hollywood-stuntwoman-daredevil-was-72-1158193

  2. History.com Editors (2009, November 13). Deaf stuntwoman Kitty O’Neil sets women’s land-speed record. History.com. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved from https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/deaf-stuntwoman-kitty-oneil-sets-womens-land-speed-record

  3. Hutchinson, Pamela (2018, November 7). Kitty O'Neil: the incredible story of the fastest woman in the world. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/film/2018/nov/07/kitty-oneil-fastest-woman-in-the-world-obituary

  4. Kelly, Kate (2011, March 7). Kitty O’Neil (1947-2018), Stuntwoman. America Comes Alive. Retrieved from https://americacomesalive.com/2011/03/07/kitty-oneil-stuntwoman/

  5. Wikipedia contributors. (2019, February 25). Kitty O'Neil. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kitty_O%27Neil

 

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About the Author

Marta Belsky Marta Belsky is a third generation ASL user. She has been teaching ASL for 30 years and enjoys sharing her native language with new users. Marta is on the Lansing Community College Interpreter Training Program Advisory Board and has also been a board member for the Michigan Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf and the Michigan Chapter of American Sign Language Teachers Association.

More about Marta  |  Articles by Marta

Living Loud: Phyllis Frelich - Actress, Innovator, and Tony Award Winner

Living Loud: Phyllis Frelich - Actress, Innovator, and Tony Award Winner

Deaf Culture   |  Sunday, March 10, 2019

By Marta Belsky

This article is by Marta Belsky. Marta is a third generation ASL user. She has been teaching ASL for 30 years and enjoys sharing her native language with new users.

This article is part of our "Living Loud" series, which highlights famous people who are deaf or hard of hearing and their impact in the world.

Phyllis Frelich
Phyllis Frelich was crowned homecoming queen in 1958 at the North Dakota School for the Deaf. (Photo Credit: North Dakota School for the Deaf Legacy of the Frelich Family)

Phyllis Frelich was born on February 29, 1944 (on Leap Day) in Devils Lake, North Dakota and was the oldest of her 9 siblings. Like both of her parents and all of her siblings, she was deaf and attended the North Dakota School for the Deaf. Her parents Philip and Esther were leading members of the Deaf community. They were actively involved with events at the North Dakota School for the Deaf and in the local Deaf community, and also both served as state officers for the North Dakota Association of the Deaf. She was a cheerleader and Homecoming Queen at the North Dakota School for the Deaf.

A Love for Acting

When Phyllis showed a dramatic flair in school in North Dakota in the 1950’s, there wasn’t a lot of opportunity or call for Deaf actors. When she went to Gallaudet College (now called Gallaudet University), there was no drama or theatre degree offered, she was discouraged from pursuing acting, and was told repeatedly there wasn’t a future in acting for deaf performers, so she got a degree in Library Science.

Her graduation gift, however, was connecting with others who had talent, imagination, and desire, including the group who founded the National Theater for the Deaf in 1967. This led to her first TV role on NBC’s nationally syndicated Theater of the Deaf, which was the first television show with deaf actors using sign language rather than mime.

Phyllis Frelich acting
Frelich starred as Sarah Norman in 887 performances over more than two years while Children of a Lesser God was on Broadway. It was the longest running play in the Longacre Theatre. (Photo Credit: Playbill: What 41 Shows Ran the Longest in Each Broadway Theatre?

Phyllis Frelich
Frelich with co-star John Rubenstein with their Tony Awards in 1980. (Photo Credit: North Dakota School for the Deaf Legacy of the Frelich Family)

Her theatre work reached a zenith in 1980, when she played the leading female role in the Broadway production of Children of a Lesser God, written by Mark Medoff. It was about the romantic relationship between a deaf student and her teacher and it has been said that Medoff was largely inspired by the relationship of Phyllis and her hearing husband when he wrote the play. The play won the Tony award for Best Play, and Frelich became the first Deaf person to win a Tony award, for Best Actress. She was also nominated for an Emmy Award for her performance in the 1985 television movie Love Is Never Silent.

She made several television guest appearances, on shows including Barney Miller, ER, L.A. Law, and CSI: Crime Scene Investigation. She performed the ASL interpretation of Jewel's rendition of the national anthem at Super Bowl XXXII.

She toured all over the world with the National Theater of the Deaf as well as with Deaf West, where she performed in shows like "Big River" and "The House of Bernarda Alba." She also took on gender-switching performances in "The Gin Game" (playing Weller Martin) and "Equus" (playing Dr. Dysart).

Activist and Trailblazer

“ We are a cultural minority. We feel we are different by language, not by physical disability.
     - Phyllis Frelich

Frelich didn’t take a back seat or give up when she was told there weren’t opportunities for deaf performers. Instead, she led the way, trailblazing a path for others, and became an activist for the rights of deaf actors. Frelich said she did not consider deafness a handicap and explained, “We are a cultural minority. We feel we are different by language, not by physical disability.”

Phyllis Frelich
This portrait of Frelich was painted by Vern Skaug and is displayed in the North Dakota Rough Rider Hall of Fame in Bismarck, ND. She was presented with the Theodore Roosevelt Rough Rider Award by the Governor of North Dakota in 1981. (Photo Credit: North Dakota School for the Deaf Legacy of the Frelich Family)

Though she and others paved the way for deaf actors and actresses, Frelich said “There are fewer stereotypes about deaf people than there used to be but Hollywood still tends to believe that deaf characters are either angry and bitter and/or victims; maybe that’s why deaf actresses work more than deaf actors, at least on TV. They’re women, they’re deaf, they’re victims. What we need are more deaf writers writing about our experiences truthfully.”

Phyllis Frelich died April 10, 2014, at the age of 70. Her obituary in the Washington Post called her “one of the most prominent deaf actresses of her generation,” citing not only her awards but also her work as the first deaf member to serve on the board of directors of the Screen Actors Guild and her advocacy for the rights of deaf actors.

See It Signed - Example Sentence

See this example sentence about Phyllis Frelich signed:

Phyllis Frelich Example

ASL Gloss: P-H-Y-L-L-I-S F-R-E-L-I-C-H HERSELF DEAF ACTRESS FAMOUS WHY? WIN T-O-N-Y AWARD FOR PLAY “CHILDREN O-F A L-E-S-S-E-R GOD.”

English Example: Phyllis Frelich was a deaf actress and famous for winning the 1980 Best Actress Tony Award for the play "Children of a Lesser God."

Become a Member of Signing Savvy to see more example sentences signed, including example sentences related to Deaf Culture.

Resources

  1. Bakken, Lilia. North Dakota School for the Deaf Legacy of the Frelich Family. North Dakota School for the Deaf Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing. Retrieved from: https://www.nd.gov/ndsd/sites/ndsd/files/documents/history/docs/Frelich%20Legacy%20Finished.pdf

  2. Horwitz, Simi (2004, May 14). Medoff's Muse: Phyllis Frelich. Backstage. Retrieved from: https://www.backstage.com/magazine/article/medoffs-muse-phyllis-frelich-39589/

  3. McDonough, Megan (2014, April 14). Phyllis Frelich, deaf actress who won Tony for 'Children of a Lesser God,' Dies at 70. Washington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.washingtonpost.com/entertainment/phyllis-frelich-deaf-actress-who-won-tony-for-children-of-a-lesser-god-dies-at-70/2014/04/14/46fd6cf0-c3e2-11e3-bcec-b71ee10e9bc3_story.html

  4. National Theatre of the Deaf Performance Log. National Theatre of the Deaf (NTD). http://www.ntd.org/ntd_past-performances.html

  5. Phyllis Frelich. Internet Broadway Database. The Broadway League. https://www.ibdb.com/broadway-cast-staff/phyllis-frelich-41308

  6. Phyllis Frelich. Internet Movie Database. IMDb.com, Inc. http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0293992/ 

 

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About the Author

Marta Belsky Marta Belsky is a third generation ASL user. She has been teaching ASL for 30 years and enjoys sharing her native language with new users. Marta is on the Lansing Community College Interpreter Training Program Advisory Board and has also been a board member for the Michigan Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf and the Michigan Chapter of American Sign Language Teachers Association.

More about Marta  |  Articles by Marta

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